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Physical Geography

Sudan is located in Northeast Africa and is the biggest country in Africa.
Land Area 2,376,000 sq km (917,374 sq miles)
Countries that border Sudan include: Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, and South Sudan.

  • 5% arable land
  • 0% permanent crops
  • 46% permanent pastures
  • 19% forests and woodland
  • 30% other areas
  • 19 460 km² irrigated land
(Wikipedia, Geography of Sudan, 2011)

Major Landforms

In Northern Sudan, there are two main regions, the desert and the Nile Valley. The two deserts are the Nubian Desert and the Libyan desert. There is virtually no rainfall in these deserts. These deserts are stoney with sand dunes. There are no oases in the Nubian desert. In Western Sudan, in the regions of Darfur and Kurdufan, there are no streams. This area is 850,000 sq km, and makes the population sparse and unevenly distributed. The Marrah Mountains are also located in Western Sudan. These mountains are volcanic peaks. The Nuba Mountain Range is located in southeast Kurdufan. Another distinct area in Sudan is the central clay plains. This area stretches from the Nuba Mountains to the Ethiopian border. In Eastern Sudan, there are deserts, Al Butanah, the Qash Delta, and the Red Sea Hills.
(Wikipedia, Geography of Sudan, 2011) What major landforms are found in the U.S.? Can you name any?


Sudan's climate is tropical. There is a variation in the desert zones where winter temperatures are as low as 40 F. Summer temperatures can reach 110 F in the desert zones. There is hardly any rainfall. Dust storms occur in these stones. The average annual temperature in Khartoum is about 80 F. The annual rainfall, which occurs between mid-June through September, is about 10 inches. In southern Sudan, the annual average temperature is about 85 F. The annual rainfall in this area is about 40 inches (Climate in Sudan, n.d.). How is our climate different? Is it alike in any ways?


The Nile is considered the biggest geographical feature in Sudan. The Nile is the longest river in the world. The White Nile and the Blue Nile meet in Khartoum Sudan's capitail, forming the Nile. The Nile flows to Egypt (Geography of Sudan, 2011).
The Nile River in Sudan
Here is a list of other bodies of water in Sudan:

Akobo River Angereb River
Atbarah River
Bahr al-Arab
Bahr el Ghazal River
Bahr el Zeraf
Baro River
Dinder River
Jur River
Kidepo River
Mareb River
Blue Nile
White Nile
Pibor River
Pongo River
Sobat River
Tekezé River
Lake No
Lake Nasser
(Answers, 2011).

Read more:

Biological Geography

Plants in Sudan

There are not a lot of plants in the deserts of Sudan. Along the Nile Valley however, many plants thrive. Trees that are common in Sudan are the hashab, talh, heglig, and several species of acacia. Other indigenous vegetation include cotton, papyrus, castor-oil plants, and rubber plants (Plants and animals, n.d.).

Animals in Sudan

Because Sudan has such diverse land areas with deserts, many animals live in Sudan. Baboons live in deserts as well as grasslands. Antelope, nubian ibex, and barbary sheep are found in the deserts of Sudan. In Sudan's forests you can find antelope, red river hogs, giant forest hogs, chimpanzees, elephants, and forest monkeys. There are a few species that are unique to Sudan and cannot be found anywhere else. These species include:burton's gerbil, freshwater fish, Khartoum Dipodil,the cat snake, the Rea Sea swallow (Animals in Sudan).

nubian_ibex.jpg redriverhog.jpg giant_forest_hog_copy1.jpglightmatter_chimp2.jpg

Do we have any of the same plants or animals as Sudan?


Animals in Sudan. (n.d.). List of countries of the world in alphabetical order. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from
Geography of Sudan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from
Plants and Animals - Land and Resources - Sudan - Africa. (n.d.). Countries Quest. Retrieved December 8, 2011, from

What are the major lakes and rivers of Sudan. (n.d.). The Q&A wiki. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from