Geography of Egypt


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Map of Egypt
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Map of Egypt's Elevation
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Map of Ancient Egypt Landmarks
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Map of Egypt's Population Density

Physical Systems


Weather and Climate:


Egypt has a desert, or arid, climate. This means that in the summer it is very hot and dry, and in the winter it is very moderate. Unlike the United States, Egypt only has two seasons. Winter is from November to April and then Summer is from May to October. The only major differences between each season are the amount of wind and the changes in daytime temperatures. The unique thing about Egypt is that because most of it is desert and covered in sand and the air is so dry, there is nothing keeping the heat there once the sun goes down. The temperatures in the Summer can go from 110°F during the day to 45°F at night. That's up to a 65 degree difference! In winter, the temperature changes from day to night are only about a 45 degree difference (Tour Egypt, 2011).

In Egypt, most regions only get 80 milliliters of rainfall per year. That's only about 3 inches of rain! In some areas it doesn't rain for years and then get sudden downpours which lead to flash flooding. Another interesting aspect of Egypt's climate is the hot spring wind that blows across the country beginning in April. There isn't much blocking the wind's path, so it blows across the land and carries a lot of sand and dust with it. These sandstorms can reach speeds up to 87 miles per hour and can be very harmful to people, animals, crops, and houses (Tour Egypt, 2011).

Water:


Egypt is home to the largest river in the world, the Nile River. It stretches about 4,000 miles from east Africa all the way to the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile River flows from South to North, which causes many people to think it flows in the "wrong" direction. Northern Egypt is downstream, and area where the Nile spreads out and flows into the Mediterranean Sea is called the Nile River Delta (just Delta for short). The Delta is where about 63% of Egypt's population is located. If you look on the map above, you'll see that nearly all of Egypt's population is located along the length of the Nile River. This is because the Nile River and especially the Delta are a great resource for agriculture. The Nile River is the main source of water in Egypt, but Egypt also has four underground aquifers. These are sources of water that are underground, but can be used with a well system. Egypt also borders the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. These are not freshwater sources, but they are still helpful resources in Egypt (Parsons, 2011).

Land:


The land area of Egypt covers slightly over one million square kilometers (386,102 square miles). The Nile River divides the country into 2 regions, but both regions are of the same climate and use the same water systems. Only 5.4% of the land in Egypt is of excellent quality and about 42% is of poor quality. This mostly due to poor soil quality and climate. The Executive Authority for Land Improvement Project (EALIP) was put in place in 1971 to protect the land of Egypt so that it can protect and restore the little bit of good land it has (Country Reports, n.d.).

There are many mountains in Egypt, but the most notable is Mount Sinai. This is said to be the location where Moses received the Ten Commandments from God, so the Monastery of St. Catherine located there sees many visitors from all over (Wikipedia, 2011).

Many landmarks can be found in Egypt, including the Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx, the City of the Dead, the Luxor Temple, and the Colossus of Rameses II. These are all landmarks that have been around since Ancient Egypt. They are very big tourist attractions today, but they are also a great look back into the history of Egypt (Famous Wonders, n.d.).

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Pictures of Egypt's Landmarks


Biological Systems

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Phoenician Juniper Tree

Plants:


Egypt has varied plant life depending on the region. Most of the western desert region of Egypt has very little plant life. However, the Delta region and regions closer to the Nile River have much more plan life. Some of the trees that can be found in Egypt are the Phoenician juniper, the date palm, acacia trees, lebbek trees, and jacaranda trees. Other types of plant life include thorny bushes, more than 100 kinds of grasses, and several kinds of water plants. All of these things are found in varied locations throughout Egypt (Encyclopedia Britanica, 2011).

Animals:


There are many kinds of wildlife found in Egypt. Because Egypt has locations such as desert areas, The Nile River, and richer areas like the Delta, the wildlife varies from location to location. The most most common domestic animals are camels, buffalo, donkeys, sheep, and goats. There are also many wild animals such as the aoudad, the fennec, and the Egyptian jackal. There are also several kinds of reptiles and over 150 kinds of birds found in Egypt. The Nile River is home to over 190 kinds of fish and other types of aquatic life. Unfortunately, animals like the hippopotamus and the giraffe are now extinct in Egypt. Below is a small table of just some of the common wildlife found in Egypt. (Photographic Book Egypt, n.d.).

Animal Name
Type of Animal
Location
Aoudad
Sheep
Western Desert
Fennec
Fox
Desert
Jeroba
Rodent
Desert
Hyrax
Mammal
Sinai Mountains
Egyptian Cobra
Reptile
Agriculture areas
Scorpion
Insect
Desert
Locusts
Insect
Desert
Large Monitor Lizard
Reptile
Everywhere
Vipers (many species)
Reptiles
Nile Valley
The Nile Crocodile
Reptile
Southern end of the Nile River
Black Kite
Bird
Nile Valley
Great White Egret
Bird
Nile Valley
The Nile Perch
Fish
The Nile River
Hooded Crow
Bird
Everywhere
(Photographic Book Egypt, n.d.).


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Animals Found in Egypt



References:


Bronx Zoo cobra: Deadly Egyptian snake escapes and on the loose in New York City. (n.d.). Mail online. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1370494/Bronx-Zoo-cobra-Deadly-Egyptian-snake-escapes-loose-New-York-City.html

Country reports. (n.d.). FAO corporate resources depository. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4357e/y4357e07.htm

Egypt atlas: maps and online resources . (n.d.). Infoplease. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/egypt.html

Egypt maps. (n.d.). Explore Egypt tours. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://exploreegypttours.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=176&Itemid=30

Egypt plant and animal life. (n.d.). Encyclopedia Britannica online encyclopedia. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/180382/Egypt/43454/Plant-and-animal-life

Egypt weather and climate. (2011, August 21). Tour Egypt. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.touregypt.net/climate.htm

Large detailed relief map of Egypt with all cities and roads. (n.d.). Vidiani.com . Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.vidiani.com/?p=8302

MapMaker interactive . (2011, December 3). National Geographic education. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/mapping/interactive-map/

Molon, A. (n.d.). Egypt Aswan Elephantine Island date palm trees picture photo. Photo galleries. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.molon.de/galleries/Egypt/Assuan/Elephantine/img.php?pic=3

Mount Sinai. (2011, November 30). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Sinai

Nile crocodile. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nile_crocodile

Parsons, M. (n.d.). The Nile River. Tour Egypt. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.touregypt.net/egypt-info/magazine-mag05012001-magf4a.htm

Plants and animals life in Egypt. (n.d.). Photographic book. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.voyagesphotosmanu.com/plants_animals_egypt.html

The colorful wildlife of Egypt. (n.d.). Tour Egypt. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.touregypt.net/wildegypt/








Page Created by Samantha Zamudio ©smzamud@ilstu,eduCreated: 11/28/11Last Modified: 12/6/11
Egypt has varied plant life depending on the region. Most of the western desert region of Egypt has very little plant life. However, the Delta region and regions closer to the Nile River have much more plan life. Some of the trees that can be found in Egypt are the Phoenician juniper, the date palm, acacia trees, lebbek trees, and jacaranda trees. Other types of plant life include thorny bushes, more than 100 kinds of grasses, and several kinds of water plants. All of these things are found in varied locations throughout Egypt.